Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is the second cause of chronic kidney disease in children. The SRNS has high risk of rapid progression to end-stage renal disease. With the advancement of high-throughput sequencing technology, more than 70 monogenic mutation having the Mendelian inheritance patterns are identified to be associated with SRNS. Most of these genes are involved in podocyte function. Accurate diagnosis of monogenic mutation in SRNS patients helps with guiding clinical treatment protocols and genetic counseling, avoiding the excessive use of steroids/immunosuppressive therapy, and opening up possibilities for targeted therapies in SRNS patients. In this article, our research team summarizes and generalizes the molecular mechanisms, genetic testing, and specific treatment for the major types of monogenic mutations associated with SRNS.